Nearly every week there is a new story in the press about vaginas. From the safety of vaginal facials to the health risks associated with waxing, an expert from Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG), Dr. Vanessa Mackay, provides us with some new year's resolutions on how we can really look after our vaginas.
Exercise your vagina
The pelvic floor muscles hold the uterus (womb), vagina, bowel, and bladder in place (now that we've used all those words in the first sentence, we can all get comfortable). As women age, their pelvic floor muscles weaken. This can also be exasperated by pregnancy, childbirth, obesity, chronic constipation, or any other activity that causes high impact on the pelvic floor muscles. Doing regular pelvic floor exercises can help improve muscle tone, bladder and bowel control, and sensitivity during sex. If women are pregnant, or planning to get pregnant, they should start doing pelvic floor exercises as soon as possible as this will reduce the risk of experiencing incontinence after child birth.
To exercise the pelvic floor muscles, women should sit or stand comfortably with knees slightly apart and then draw up the pelvic floor muscles as if trying to avoid passing urine or wind. It is important not to tighten the stomach, buttock or thigh muscles during the exercises. Women should do ten slow contractions, holding them for about 10 seconds each. The length of time can be increased gradually and the slow contractions can then be followed by a set of quick contractions. The whole process should be carried out three or four times a day.
It's a myth that the vagina needs extensive cleaning with perfumed soaps or feminine hygiene products. The vagina is designed to clean itself with natural secretions. It contains good bacteria, which are there to protect it. If these bacteria are disturbed it can lead to infection, such as bacterial vaginosis or thrush, and inflammation. It's a good idea to avoid perfumed soaps, gels, and antiseptics as these can affect the healthy balance of bacteria and pH levels in the vagina and cause irritation. Use plain, unperfumed soaps to wash the area around the vagina (the vulva), not inside it, gently every day. During your period, washing more than once a day may be helpful.
Consider keeping your pubic hair
Pubic hair offers a natural barrier to keep things clean, to decrease contact with viruses and bacteria, and to protect the tender skin of the area. While protecting against diseases and skin problems, public hair also prevents foreign particles like dust and pathogenic bacteria from entering the body, and helps to control the moisture of the area which decreases the chances of yeast infections.
If women shave their pubic hair, they are putting themselves at a higher risk of contracting venereal disease, like genital warts. Although pubic hair doesn't completely prevent the STIs, it helps avoid skin-on-skin contact with someone who may already have it. Removing pubic hair also irritates and inflames the hair follicles left behind, leaving microscopic open wounds. When that irritation is combined with the warm moist environment of the genitals, it becomes a happy culture medium for bacterial pathogens.
Do what makes you most comfortable, but consider more than just the aesthetic of your vagina.
Seek help for extreme period pain
More than half of women who have regular periods experience pain for one to two days each month, and for some women the pain can be severe and last throughout their period. This can be extremely debilitating and dramatically impact a woman's quality of everyday life. Women should not suffer in silence and we'd advise any woman experiencing severe pain to seek advice from their doctor as there are several treatment options available to help alleviate symptoms.
Don't be embarrassed about vaginal flatulence
Vaginal flatulence is caused when air is pushed inside the vagina (also known as queefing). This can happen during sex or other sex acts by a man's penis, a finger, or a sex toy. A deep thrust or body movement can cause the air to be released. The air is also expelled as the vagina returns to its pre-aroused state. Vaginal flatulence can also happen during a pelvic exam, when women insert a female condom, menstrual cup or tampon, or during exercise. It can also be caused by weak pelvic floor muscles.
Don't ignore any abnormal symptoms
Bleeding or "spotting" between periods is a common side effect of the contraceptive pill. It can also be caused by stress, injury to the vagina or vaginal dryness, but may be something more serious such as an STI or cervical or womb cancer. Spotting cancer early is important as it means treatment is more likely to be successful.
If women are concerned by bleeding between periods, they should be checked out by a doctor. Any sudden change in a woman's discharge may indicate a vaginal infection, so women should take note of how their discharge naturally varies throughout their cycles. The warning signs of infection include a change in color or consistency, a sudden bad smell, an unusually large amount of discharge, itching outside the vagina or pain in the pelvis or tummy, or unexpected bleeding from the vagina. If a woman isn't sure whether her discharge is normal, she should visit her GP, practice nurse or pharmacist.
Change your sanitary pad or tampon regularly
If you prefer using tampos over sanitary napkins during your period, take note: Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but life-threatening bacterial infection caused by taphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria. While scientists recognize a link between TSS and tampon use, there is no proven evidence as to why this occurs. It's believed that leaving a tampon in your vagina for a prolonged time can create a breeding ground for bacteria.
Tampons should be changed every four to six hours, or when it's saturated with blood, and should not be left in the vagina for more than eight hours as this can increase the risk of TSS. It's also important to use a tampon with the right absorbency according to how heavy a woman's menstrual flow is.
Attend your cervical screening appointment
A cervical screening test, or smear test, is used to detect abnormal cells on the cervix; the entrance to the womb from the vagina. If a woman has abnormal results following a cervical screening test, she may have borderline or cell changes (low-grade) or, moderate or severe cell changes (high-grade). This doesn't mean she has or will get cancer. It just means some of the cells are abnormal, and if they're not treated they may develop into cervical cancer. Early detection greatly improves the chances of successful treatment and can prevent any early cervical cell changes from becoming cancerous.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are passed from one person to another through unprotected sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Many people with STIs don't get symptoms, so if you have had unprotected sex but feel fine, it's worth getting tested.
Learn to love your vagina
We are seeing increasing numbers of adolescent girls and women requesting labial reduction surgery, otherwise known as labiaplasty. Labiaplasty is female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) and is offered as a solution to symptoms related to genital appearance and/or genital discomfort, however, some women are requesting it solely for cosmetic reasons.
Every woman's vagina is different in color, size, and shape. Labias are as individual as women themselves and vary in appearance and color. Women must know that every vagina is unique and that variation in appearance is normal in the vast majority of cases.
This article originally appeared on Cosmopolitan.com/uk. Minor edits have been made by the Cosmo.ph editors.