A new study published in the Psychological Bulletin found that men are more narcissistic than women [via The Washington Post]. The study involved almost 500,000 participants over 30 years, and found that, regardless of age, men are more manipulative, arrogant, and aggressive.
The study broke narcissism down into three components: entitlement, leadership/authority, and grandiose/exhibitionism. Men scored much higher in the first two categories. Researchers agreed that narcissism has its advantages. Narcissistic men are more likely to have higher self-esteem and go after leadership roles in the workplace more often. But those advantages are also coupled with a tendency to lack ethics and have trouble with long-term relationships.
The researchers believe this tendency toward narcissism could be one of the reasons men are stereotyped as leaders while women can receive negative feedback for being too aggressive. That lack of narcissism on the part of women could be one of the reasons for wage gap differences and lack of women in leadership roles.
This article originally appeared on Cosmopolitan.com. Minor edits have been made by the Cosmo.ph editors.